Genus Henicopsaltria Stal, 1866 (Grinders)
of this genus are most closely allied to Arenopsaltria
(a genus restricted to
Distribution of the genus Henicopsaltria
Index to Genus Henicopsaltria
|Henicopsaltria eydouxii||Jungle Grinder|
|Henicopsaltria rufivelum||Razor Grinder|
See also genus Arenopsaltria (below)
Razor Grinder Henicopsaltria eydouxii (Guérin-Méneville, 1838)
Size: Forewing length: 45-60mm.
and Season: From
Miriam Vale and Kroombit Tops in central
Habits: Adults can occur in local aggregations and also scattered populations in dry and wet sclerophyll forest throughout their range. They tend to be fairly static, but will fly without hesitation if disturbed. The main trunks of various Myrtaceae are preferred perching sites.
Song: An exceptionally loud series of broken pulses that increases in volume and culminates into a continuous roar, which then brakes up and dies away somewhat abruptly. Local groups of males sing at the same time. Singing becomes most vigorous at dusk, when waves of song are emitted constantly from different parts of the forest. Populations tend to feed silently for much of the afternoon. Males take flight when disturbed and emitted a distress call, which can sometimes be detrimental in their attempts to evade predators, such as birds.
Recording of Razor Grinder (Eidsvold, Queensland)
Song type - Laughing Razor Grinder: Interestingly there is a different song type that is produced by populations in wet sclerophyll forest and rainforest, between Cunningham's Gap (south-east Queensland) and Dorrigo (New South Wales). Populations that produce the typical song have not been observed to produce this song and vice versa. Both types occur sympatrically on the Beechmont Range near Nerang and possibly overlap in the Cunningham's Gap area. Further investigation is required to ascertain the specific status of both song types.
Oscillogram of calling song (Laughing Razor Grinder)
Recording of Laughing Razor Grinder (Cunningham's Gap, Queensland)
Recording of Laughing Razor Grinder chorus (Dorrigo, New South Wales)
Thanks to Rob Morgan for providing the recording from Dorrigo
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Jungle Grinder Henicopsaltria rufivelum Moulds, 1978
Appearance: Ochre brown on head with thorax with a series of distinctive black lines (fascia) extending from the back of the head. The addomen is dark with a fine layer of silver hair (pubescence). Males have distinctive large, orange opercula on the ventral side. The wings are faintly infuscated around the apical cells. These insects have a compact and robust appearance.
Size: Forewing length: 42-47mm.
Range and Season: From south of Cooktown to Cairns in Queensland wet tropics. December to March.
Habits: Adults occur at varying heights on tropical rainforest trees, both in the lowlands (e.g. Mossman Gorge) and highlands (e.g. Mount Lewis). Populations occur in loose aggregations.
Song: A series of harsh double-notes that increases in speed and volume to a culmination point before receding.
Recording of calling song
Genus Arenopsaltria (Sandgrinders)
Allied to Henicopsaltria. Four species restricted to southern and south-western Australia.
Sandgrinder Arenopsaltria fullo (Walker, 1850)
South-western Western Australia
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